In the last article I’ve told you about “barrier” and natural contraception. But there are a great amount of hormonal contraceptive and each of them works in its own way. In general, they can be divided into two types: containing estrogen hormones (their analogs) and contraceptives without estrogen.
Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills (COCP)
The most popular method of hormonal contraception. If they are used correctly, it is the most sustainable method of contraception. The tablets contain two types of hormones: estrogens and progestins. They suppress ovulation and pregnancy becomes impossible.
But a lot of women afraid of using them. For example, estrogens promote thrombogenesis and increase the risk of thrombosis. (But in fact the risk is much higher when you are smoking or even if you are pregnant). So if woman doesn’t have any serious contraindications, using of COCP is considered to be safe.
And one more thing: women are afraid of excess weight: almost every woman thinks that she can put on weight because of pills.
In fact, it is not true: modern contraceptives contain minimal doses of hormones (which can a little but intensify the esurience), but they don’t intensify the weight gain.
The second method of contraception with the usage of estrogens. Composition and the way of proceeding is similar to COCPs, but it differs a lot in the way of usage.
Flexible ring is inserted right into the vagina, where in the right proportions it releases hormones. So this process helps to suppress the ovulation.
The ring has almost no influence on the liver, but using of it may be very uncomfortable: it can fall out of the vagina and detain the woman.
Hormonal plaster contains the estrogens too, but it is pasted to the skin and supplies the body with hormones through the blood.
Another group of hormonal contraceptives, they have no estrogens, only progestogens. Due to this, they have no side-effects as estrogen contraceptives and they are considered as safe method, but less effective.
This group includes so-called mini-pills: the tablets containing minimal dose of hormones. They don’t block the ovulation, but cause the concentration of cervical mucus (the mucus in the uterine neck), which prevents spermatozoids from the penetration to the uterus. For another thing, progestogens keep away the inner shell of the uterus from the swelling (without hormones this process is starting in the second period of the menstrual cycle). So due to this, embryo can’t affiliate to the uterine wall and can’t start its development.
Especially desperate women can decide to suture the contraceptive hormonal implant under the skin ( which also doesn’t contain estrogen). He is setting in for a few years and during these years he is dosing regularly a necessary amount of the hormone progestogen. As the mini-pills, the implant causes the concentration of cervical mucus and blocks the swelling of the endometrium.
Hormonal endometrial spiral
The principle of action is mixed. Spiral immobilizes spermatozoids and mechanically prevents the embryo to affiliate to the uterine wall, just like an ordinary spiral. For another thing, it releases daily doses of hormone progestogen, which block the swelling of the endometrium, and as a result the embryo can’t fixate.
Vagitories, creams, foams, sponges and pills which destroy spermatozoids. Usually, all of these medicine tools must be used 10-15 min before the sex. Their main advantage is that they protect you from the sexually transmitted diseases – but not completely from every. Disadvantage – they are less effective than other contraceptives. Therefore, it is recommended to use them with other methods of contraception.