There are minimum near 16 million of unwanted pregnancies every year. 90% of them could be prevented if women tried to use correctly modern methods of contraception. Strangely, but in XXI century millions of people ignore them or use them incorrectly. In this article I will speak about the most popular methods of contraception (even do they really work or not).
“Barrier” contraception – is different facilities that physically block the path of sperm to the uterus. Spermatozoid can’t meet the ovum (egg cell) and fertilization doesn’t happen.
Male condom are widely popular, but not everyone knows about female condom. It is a small pouch, usually made from the poly-urethane, which is inserted into vagina and then fixed in it by the elastic rings. Both types of condoms prevent unwanted pregnancy and protect from the sexually transmitted diseases. According to the statistics: male condom prevent neat 98% of unwanted pregnancies, but women condom only 90%.
Uterine cap and vaginal diaphragm — are the latex caps of different shapes, which are installed on the uterine neck. They will not protect partners from the diseases, but they will prevent the pregnancy.
Their minuses are: complexity of usage (not every woman can put on the cap herself) and allergic reaction which can appear due to the long contact of the mucosa with latex.
“Natural” is called methods which don’t require mechanical or medical intervention.
One of the most popular, but the most unreliable method of the “natural” contraception. The man takes out the penis from the vagina for a few seconds before eaculation. At first, man may be late at all. At the second, during the frictions a small amount of the pre-seminal fluid is released, that may contain a small amount of sperm. So, according to the statistics this method is effective in from 73 to 96%, depending on the correctness of use.
Woman controls pleasure and unpleasure days for impregnation during her menstrual cycle. The fertilization of the ovum takes place only within 48 hours after ovulation, and the lifetime of the spermatozoid in the uterine neck is about a week or even less. Therefore the several days before ovulation and a few days after also dangerous for impregnation. The adepts of the calendar method confirm that during this period the woman should abstain from sexual act, if she doesn’t want to pregnant.
The disadvantage of this method is that is not always possible to calculate when the ovulation will appear, especially for women with irregular menstrual cycle.
This method helps you to inquire the moment of the beginning of ovulation. It is not for a lazy ladies: every morning after awakening you should take your basal temperature. (inserting the thermometer in the anus). Before the ovulation basal temperature slightly drops, and immediately after ovulation it increases by 0,3 – 0,5 degrees and keep staying at this point until the end of the cycle. If you control your temperature daily, you can determine when the ovulation will appear.
Lactational amenorrhea method
Ovulation are not happening during the first months of brest-feeding, so there is no need to use contaceptives. But there is an important factor : a woman should feed her baby very intensively (at least every 3 hours during a day and once in 6 hours at night), otherwise lactigenic and oxytocic hormones generation reduces and their “contraceptive” effect disappears.
Coil (intrauterine device) is a popular and pretty easy contraceptive method. This device is usually made of cooper or silver with plastic and it is installed by a doctor to an uterus for a few years. Cooper or silver have harmful effect on the spermotozoids and if fertilization still happens, then the coil prevents ovum from attachment to the uterus.This method is convenient because it is easy and comfortable, but it has its own problems – for ex. it increases the risk of the infections and inflammations developing.